P-values: What they are and what they are not, will look in detail at good examples of using p-values and how to interpret them. After reviewing widely understood problems with p-values, attention is drawn to regularly encountered use of p-values where it is less clear what their correct interpretation actually is. Furthermore, we demonstrate why p-values are not meaningful measures of support for specific hypotheses. Guidance on good statistical data analyses is based on a statement on p-values by the American Statistical Association. A hierarchy of scientific evidence compiled by The Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine is reviewed to re-emphasize the role of thoughtful statistical analyses in scientific and medical discovery.
Presented April 30th, 2019.